Publisher's Comments

We have proudly designated JBC 36-1 to be a JBC SPECIAL ISSUE, as it represents an entire issue primarily devoted to just one topic. Historically, the JBC has published only two other similar issues focused on a single topic. The first SPECIAL ISSUE, JBC 11-2 published in May of 1984, was titled Computer Graphics In Biocommunication. AMI member Herb Smith was the JBC Guest Editor for this landmark publication. Thank you, Herb, for your leadership and insight in producing this issue.

The second JBC SPECIAL ISSUE was JBC  19-3 published in September 1992. This issue was titled Special Issue: Imaging and included articles on the subjects of visualization, medical imaging databases, and the use of optical technology in simulators. Robin Sandefur was JBC’s Guest Editor for this issue. Thank you Robin for your commitment.

Our current SPECIAL ISSUE focuses on aspects of artists’ rights, and broadly covers subjects of illustrators’ rights during the late 1800s. We also include articles that discuss more recent issues surrounding existing copyright law, copyright registration, artists’ rights, and the current U.S. Orphan Works legislation.

This issue features five outstanding articles beginning with Terrence Brown’s “Historic Rights Issues in American Illustration.” Mr. Brown traces the development of American illustration during the post Civil War period, as book, newspaper, and magazine publishers successfully used artists’ sketches and illustrations to accompany their printed text and advertisements. These artists became more and more important to the publisher’s success, and the demand for their illustrations grew. Ownership of original art and issues relating to secondary usage rights culminated in the formation of the Society of Illustrators in New York in 1901. Many historical illustrations are included as examples of these amazing illustrators.

Also included is the in-depth article titled “Perfect and Strengthen Your Copyrights” written by medical illustrator, author, and artists’ rights advocate, Cynthia Turner.  Ms. Turner discusses the importance of timely registration, as it may help strengthen an artist’s ability to protect authorship. She describes in detail what copyright is, and how current U.S. Copyright law applies to us as creators. Cynthia also reviews the scope and limitations of U.S. Copyright law, the categories of authorship, Copyright reversion, and walks us through the process of U.S. Copyright registration.

Noted attorney Chris Castle offers “Artists’ Rights are Human Rights.” Mr. Castle’s clients include artists, producers, motion picture and television studios, as well as technology companies. Mr. Castle’s insightful article describes some of the ongoing efforts of large technology companies, anti-copyright authors, “hive mind” advocates, and free-culture promoters, all who lobby for the relaxation of copyright laws. Mr. Castle concludes that artists’ rights are more expansive than simple legal rights. Moreover, the human rights of artists are clearly articulated in many international laws insuring the protection and the benefits from the protection of the moral and material interests derived from scientific, literary, or artistic production.

 “Trojan Horse: Orphan Works and the War on Authors,” written by Brad Holland, is also featured in this issue. Brad is an accomplished illustrator and author, who has written extensively about intellectual property rights, U.S. copyright, and Orphan Works legislation. The author states that if passed, Orphan Works legislation would summarily reverse the automatic copyright protection currently afforded to authors by the 1976 Copyright Act. This Orphan Works Amendment would effectively remove penalties for an infringement, if the infringer had made what is termed a “reasonable search” for the creator within yet-to-be-created image databases.

We also include “Orphan Works Legislation - A Bad Deal for Artists,” written by accomplished attorney, legislative policy advisor, and author, Bruce Lehman. Mr. Lehman currently practices law and also serves as the Chairman of the International Intellectual Property Institute based in Washington, D.C. In his article Mr. Lehman notes that in January 2006, the U.S. Copyright Office issued their “Orphan Works Report,” outlining their recommendations to Congress for changes to the 1976 Copyright Act. In its current form, Orphan Works legislation, now in Committee within the U.S. Congress, has the potential to reverse the 30-year history of copyright protection enjoyed by artists and authors in the United States.

25 years ago in JBPA/JBP takes a look at a hand-held photographic bracket that provides multiple electronic flash modules for lighting a variety of medical and biological subjects. This original issue of the JBP also describes the collaboration between a photographer and computer-imaging firm to develop an electronic system for imaging the eye. BCA member Eugene McDermott authors this retrospective column.

This issue also features a review of the book Imaginative Realism: How to Paint What Doesn’t Exist by James Gurney. Mr. Gurney’s book, reviewed by AMI member Jodi Jenkinson, offers medical illustrators a wealth of resources for creating illustrations for both theoretical and imagined subject matter. As Jodie accurately describes, "Imaginative Realism is an impressive testament to the rich tradition of illustration. It will make you want to step away from your computer, take up your sketchpad, venture outside, and draw!"

Our JBC Showcase for this issue features the wonderful imagery of Andrew Davidhazy, Professor of Imaging and Photographic Technology at the Rochester Institute of Technology. One of Mr. Davidhazy’s areas of professional interest has been the "field" of photoinstrumentation including: high-speed photography, schlieren and shadowgraph photography, ballistic photography and stroboscopy. Daidhazy’s work has been featured in hundreds of individual and group exhibitions worldwide, in thousands of books, magazines, and other printed works. Mr. Davidhazy has been actively lecturing and publishing over the course of his entire career.

Our JBC 36-1 Gallery features the award winning animations from the 64th AMI Annual Meeting in Richmond, VA. We are featuring these animations as full motion media trailers. Congratulations to all these award-winning animators.

We also include a JBC Viewpoint, wherein I review and offer some comments about Apple’s new iPad Introduced by Apple CEO Steve Jobs in January 2010, the iPad has the potential to change the way we view news media, books, magazines, and new media content.  

Finally, I’d like to personally thank our five feature authors for their dedication to the area of artists’ rights preservation, for their patience during the JBC editing process, and for their insightful and thought provoking written content. I especially wish to thank and acknowledge Cynthia Turner for her assistance in coordinating this issue. Cynthia and I corresponded for nearly one full year about the possibility of producing this Artists’ Rights SPECIAL ISSUE. We’re both extremely grateful that the topic could be presented and shared in this manner in the Journal of Biocommunication.

Gary Schnitz, FAMI       
Chair, JBC Management Board


The JOURNAL OF BIOCOMMUNICATION (J.Biocommun) is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Index in Journals in Education, Biological Abstracts - RRM (Reports, Reviews, Meetings), Hospital Literature, Dental Abstracts and Middle East: Abstracts and Index. ISSN: US0094-2499.

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THE JOURNAL OF BIOCOMMUNICATION is available to all paid members of the ABCD, AMI, BCA, and HeSCA. Other individuals and institutions are invited to subscribe: individuals at $60, libraries or institutions at $95, students at $50 per year.

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Direct editorial communications to respective association editors.
Managing Editor:
Joe Ogrodnick
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Geneva, NY 14456
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Association of Biomedical Communications Directors (ABCD) Editor: Manny Bekier
Biomedical Communications
SUNY Downstate Medical Center
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Box 18
Brooklyn, NY 11203
(718) 270-7551, fax (718) 270-7549

Association of Medical Illustrators (AMI) Co-Editors:
Gary Lees
The Johns Hopkins University, Art as Applied to Medicine
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
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Baltimore, MD 21093
(410) 955-3213

Shelley Wall
University of Toronto
CCT Building, Room 3067
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(905) 569-4265

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Alan Opsahl
Senior Scientist Pfizer Investigative Pathology Lab
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Groton, CT 06340
Phone: (860) 686-6915

Calendar and Association News Editor:
Gary Schnitz

Indiana Hand to Shoulder Center
P.O. Box 80434
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(317) 471-4446, fax (317) 471-4404

Management Board: Gary Schnitz, Chairman (The Indiana Hand Center) Bob Turner (The Scripps Research Institute) Connie Johansen (National Geospatial Intelligence Agency) Gary Lees (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine) Shelley Wall (University of Toronto) Manny Bekier (SUNY Downstate Medical Center)

Webmaster: Michael Getz (Illumina Interactive, Boston, MA)

Editors: Each member association of The Journal of Biocommunication may select one Editor, whose responsibility it is to secure manuscript material and assure technical accuracy, validity, and usefulness of the Journal's content. Each Editor works with an Editorial Review Board selected by the sponsor association. Members of the Editorial Review Board critique and edit articles, and provide other editorial assistance, at the request of the Editor. The JBC accepts unsolicited materials for consideration. Unsolicited materials may be submitted to the Managing Editor or to any of the Association Editors for consideration. For more information, please see Contributors.

Editorial Review Board: Scott Barrows (Medical Art Associates) • Zina Deretsky (National Science Foundation) • Marc Dryer (University of Toronto) • Craig Gosling (Indiana University) • Christine Gralapp (Fairfax, Calif.) • Kenneth Heyman (Immersion Medical) • Tom Hurtgen (Hillsborough, NC) • Dale Kennedy (Sandia Park, NM) • Patrick Lynch (Yale University) • Ken Michaels (National Cancer Institute) • Steven Moon (Ohio State University) • Michael Peres (Rochester Institute of Technology) • James Perkins (Rochester Institute of Technology) • David Rini (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine) • Sue Seif (Seif & Associates.) • Bobb Sleezer (Christiana Care Health Services) • Bob Turner (The Scripps Research Institute) • Linda Warren (Austin, TX) • Linda Wilson-Pauwels (University of Toronto)

Business Manager: Carol Gray

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Copyright 2010, The Journal of Biocommunication, All Rights Reserved
Table of Contents for VOLUME 36, NUMBER 1